How small is small? The United States Small Business Administration establishes the size standards used to identify a company considered small. The standards define the maximum size that an enterprise, together with all of its affiliates, may be if it is to be eligible for federal small business programs. As a general rule, a small business is one that:
Maybe that definition leaves you scratching your head. Here is another "rule of thumb" to use. If you deal with a product (i.e., manufacture, deal, or distribute), then the size standard is based on the average number of employees over a 12-month period, typically 500 or less. If you are in a service industry, then the standard is based upon the average annual sales over a three-year period, ranging in dollars from $750,000 to $28.5 million.
SBA size standards. The following chart, which you also can find on the SBA web site, will help you decide where you fall. Just remember this is a summary of industry groups. Go to the SBA website, for more detailed information. A business in one of the following industry groups is small if it is not greater than the size standard indicated.
In late 2005, the SBA adjusted its dollar-based small business size standards, which are based on receipts, net worth and financial assets, to reflect inflation that has occurred since February 2002, when SBA last adjusted them for the same reason. Since the February 2002 inflation adjustment, prices have generally increased 8.7 percent. SBA increased the familiar "anchor" size standard from $6.0 million to $6.5 million. Size standards that are higher than $6 million also reflect similar percentage increases.
SBA Small Business Size Standards
|Wholesale Trade||100 employees|
|Retail Trade||$7 million|
|General and Heavy Construction (except Dredging)||$33.5 million|
|Food Services||$7 - $20 million|
|Special Trade Contractors||$14 million|
|Computer and Electronics||500 - 1,000 employees|
|Business and Personal Services, except:||$6 million|
|Architectural, Engineering, Surveying and Mapping Services||$4.5 million|
|Dry cleaning and Carpet Cleaning Services||$4.5 million|
|For specific size standards, refer to the size regulations in 13 CFR sec. 121.201 or 48 CFR sec. 19 or the table of small business size standards.|
SBA issued an Interim Final Rule on December 6, 2005, and the revised size standards took effect the same day for its loan programs. For federal procurement, the new size standards become effective on January 5, 2006.
For more information about SBA's increase to its small business size standards for inflation, please see refer to the SBA's inflation information.
If the size of a business exceeds the size standard for its overall industry classification, it may still be a small business under the North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) code, (pronounced "nakes") for that group. Some industries have higher size standards than the general one for the entire industry group. SBA has a Table of Size Standards on its web site at www.sba.gov. The SBA uses NAICS codes to identify industrial categories and make size determinations. Just remember that the SBA does revise the size standards from time to time based on changes in the data used to determine size.
Size Factors, Ownership Affiliations, Technology and Financial Resources
Your company's official status as a small business is also affected by ownership affiliations. Certain contractual arrangements with larger companies may disqualify eligibility. What this means is that if you are a business that is owned/held by a "large" business, you are a large business. This is to ensure a level playing field and fair competition among small businesses.
The SBA defines affiliates as:
Affiliates - Affiliation with another business concern is based on the power to control, whether exercised or not. Such factors as common ownership, common management and identity of interest (often found in members of the same family), among others, are indicators of affiliation. Power to control exists when a party or parties have 50 percent or more ownership. It may also exist with considerably less than 50 percent ownership by contractual arrangement or when one or more parties own a large share compared to other parties. Affiliated business concerns need not be in the same line of business. The calculation of a concern's size includes the employees or receipts of all affiliates.
Your Financial Resources
What is the financial situation of your business? Is your business financially stable or are you just starting out and short on cash flow? Are you able to make payroll and other payments with no problem? In other words, is your business financially healthy?
If you are in financial trouble, a government contract would be more likely to put you out of business than to save your business. We have seen many companies that want that million-dollar contract, but the worst thing that can happen is to get one and not be prepared for it. Still, there are ways to work with other companies, even your competition, to get more purchase orders.
The Right Technology Is a Necessity
We can't stress enough the importance of this area. Simply put, if you are not capable of doing business using some kind of electronic commerce (e-commerce) or electronic procurement (e-procurement), you will not be doing business with the government.
Why? Because the law, beginning with the Government Paperwork Elimination Act of 1995, requires the government to use electronic means to issue and award small business contracts, specifically those between $2,500 and $100,000. Furthermore, in a continuous effort to streamline the procurement process, government buyers are using new options in making purchases, such as multiple-award schedules, purchase cards, reverse auctions, etc., almost all of them technology-based.
The goal of electronic procurement is to allow the exchange of information, such as purchase orders, invoices, or shipping notifications in an electronic, paperless format. The benefits for the government are the elimination of manpower costs associated with processing paper, reduction in errors, and speeding up the process of ordering and paying for goods and services. You can now get government bids automatically sent to you via e-mail, decide which ones you want to bid on, download the technical information from the Internet, and then bid on the requirement without using one sheet of hard paper.
In order to do business with the federal government, you must have the following at your disposal:
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